Friday, April 29, 2011

Punch Kinematics in Boxing and MMA

Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics
Authors: Barry A. Piorkowskia; Adrian Leesa; Gabor J. Bartona
DOI: 10.1080/14763141.2010.547590


The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed.
There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F2,18,84.87 = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F2,64,102.87 = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M ± SD: 9.26 ± 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 ± 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 ± 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 ± 2.53 m/s).
Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported.
This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Hit Training for Soccer Players

Effects of 5 Weeks' High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Volume Training in 14-Year-Old Soccer Players

Sperlich, B, De Marées, M, Koehler, K, Linville, J, Holmberg, H-C, and Mester, J.

Effects of 5 weeks' high-intensity interval training vs. volume training in 14-year-old soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 25(5): 1271-1278, 2011-

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) in junior and adult soccer has been shown to improve oxygen uptake (V̇o2) and enhance soccer performance. The main purpose of this study was to examine the short term effects of a 5-week HIIT vs. high-volume training (HVT) program in 14-year-old soccer players regarding the effects on V̇o2max and 1,000-m time (T1000) and on sprinting and jumping performance. In a 5-week period, 19 male soccer players with a mean (SD) age of 13.5 ± 0.4 years performed HIIT at close to ∼90% of maximal heart rate. The HVT intensity was set at 60-75% of maximal heart rate.

V̇o2max increased significantly (7.0%) from pre to post in HIIT but not after HVT. T1000 decreased significantly after HIIT (∼−10 vs. ∼−5 seconds in HVT). Sprint performance increased significantly in both groups from pre to posttesting without any changes in jumping performance.

Monday, April 25, 2011

ACL Reconstruction and Electrical Stimulation

  1. Biostatistics Unit, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
  1. Conor Minogue, M.Eng.Sc
  1. Biomedical Research Ltd, Galway, Ireland
  1. Hans H. Paessler, MD
  1. Center for Knee and Foot Surgery Sports Traumatology, ATOS Clinic Centre Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany


Background: Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a key determinant affecting patient return to usual activity levels. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is a treatment that can counteract strength loss and serve as an adjunct to conventional therapy.

Purpose: To compare the effect of adding traditional neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Polystim) or a novel garment-integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Kneehab) to a standard postoperative rehabilitation program (control).

Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.

Methods: Ninety-six patients, of a total enrolled cohort of 131 patients randomized to 1 of 3 intervention groups, completed a standard rehabilitation program. In addition, the 2 neuromuscular electrical stimulation groups underwent 20-minute sessions of neuromuscular electrical stimulation 3 times a day, 5 days a week, for 12 weeks, in which stimulation was superimposed on isometric volitional contractions. Outcome measures including isokinetic strength of the knee extensors of the injured and uninjured leg at 90 and 180 deg/s, along with functional tests of proprioception, were assessed at baseline and at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively.

Results: The Kneehab group achieved significantly better results at each time point compared with the Polystim and control groups (P < .001). Extensor strength of the Kneehab group at speeds of 90 and 180 deg/s increased by 30.2% and 27.8%, respectively, between the preoperative measurements and the 6-month follow-up point in the injured leg. The corresponding changes for Polystim were 5.1% and 5%, whereas for the control group they were 6.6% and 6.7%, respectively. The mean single-legged hop test hop score of the Kneehab group improved by 50% between the 6-week and 6-month follow-up, whereas the corresponding changes for the Polystim and control groups were 26.3% and 26.2%, respectively. Although there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the Tegner score and the International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 knee examination score, the Kneehab group showed a significant difference in mean improvement for the baseline corrected Lysholm score compared with the control group (P = .01; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-8.59) and with the Polystim group (P < .001; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.09) with no significant difference evident between Polystim and control groups (P = .97; 95% confidence interval, −4.23 to 3.51).

Conclusion: Intensive garment-integrated stimulation combined with standard rehabilitation is effective at accelerating recovery after knee surgery.

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Apr 22, 2011 Effects of Speed, Agility, Quickness Training Method on Power Performance in Elite Soccer Players

Jovanovic, M, Sporis, G, Omrcen, D, and Fiorentini, F. Effects of speed, agility, quickness training method on power performance in elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 25(5): 1285-1292, 2011-

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the speed, agility, quickness (SAQ) training method on power performance in soccer players. Soccer players were assigned randomly to 2 groups: experimental group (EG; n = 50) and control group (n = 50). Power performance was assessed by a test of quickness-the 5-m sprint, a test of acceleration-the 10-m sprint, tests of maximal speed-the 20- and the 30-m sprint along with Bosco jump tests-squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), maximal CMJ, and continuous jumps performed with legs extended. The initial testing procedure took place at the beginning of the in-season period. The 8-week specific SAQ training program was implemented after which final testing took place.

The results of the 2-way analysis of variance indicated that the EG improved significantly (p < 0.05) in 5-m (1.43 vs. 1.39 seconds) and in 10-m (2.15 vs. 2.07 seconds) sprints, and they also improved their jumping performance in countermovement (44.04 vs. 4.48 cm) and continuous jumps (41.08 vs. 41.39 cm) performed with legs extended (p < 0.05). The SAQ training program appears to be an effective way of improving some segments of power performance in young soccer players during the in-season period. Soccer coaches could use this information in the process of planning in-season training. Without proper planning of the SAQ training, soccer players will most likely be confronted with decrease in power performance during in-season period.

Friday, April 22, 2011

6 surprising causes of back pain - Healthy Living on Shine

6 surprising causes of back pain - Healthy Living on Shine

By Nicole DeCoursy

If you’ve ever had a bout of back pain, you’re not alone: According to the National Institutes of Health, 8 out of 10 people will suffer from back pain at some point in their lives. Most of the time, back pain is set off by something totally minor, says Venu Akuthota, MD, director of the Spine Center at the University of Colorado Hospital in Aurora, Colorado.

Besides obvious causes (constantly lugging a too-heavy purse, for instance), experts say that everyday habits like hunching over your smartphone can strain your spine and the surrounding muscles over time, causing pain and making you more vulnerable to serious injury. To stop back pain now—and avoid future agony—try targeting these unexpected culprits.

Culprit No. 1: Your fancy office chair
Even an expensive, ergonomic chair can be bad for your back if you sit in it all day without a break. Sitting not only lessens blood flow to the discs that cushion your spine (wearing them out and stressing your back), but it puts 30% more pressure on the spine than standing or walking, says New York City chiropractor Todd Sinett, author of The Truth About Back Pain. Be sure to stretch at your desk and get up every hour to walk around. Don’t assume that built-in lumbar support makes your chair back-friendly—in fact, for many people, lumbar supports don’t make a bit of difference, especially if they aren’t positioned properly (at the base of your spine), says Heidi Prather, a physical-medicine and rehabilitation specialist and associate professor of orthopedic surgery and neurology at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. 12 ways to stop work-related back pain

No matter what type of chair you sit in, make sure your head is straight (not tilted down) when you’re typing or reading. Avoid slouching and adjust your seat so it tilts back slightly to help alleviate some of the load on your back, Sinett says. And keep your feet planted firmly on the floor.

Culprit No. 2: The wrong shoes
When you strut in stilettos, your foot strikes the ground in a toe-forward motion rather than the normal heel-toe gait, stressing your knees, hips, and back, Sinett explains. "Wearing heels also alters the angle of your body so your weight isn’t evenly distributed over the spine," he says. This instability can set you up for pain and injury radiating from your knees all the way to your back. Finding the perfect shoe

Another shoe no-no: the backless kind (even flats and flip-flops), which allow your heel to slide around. Again, the lack of stability distributes your body weight unevenly, putting more pressure on your spine. Your shoe should firmly hold your foot in place to keep you stable and protect your back, says Sinett, who also advises sticking to heels that are less than three inches high.

Culprit No. 3: Your beloved smartphone or tablet
Mobile technology has not been kind to our backs and necks, Prather says. "We’re hovering over laptops, iPads, and smartphones all the time," she notes. "This head-down position strains the muscles in the neck, and the pain can extend all the way down your spine to your lower back." Take frequent breaks, and try to look straight ahead—rather than down—while using a laptop, tablet, or phone. You can buy a stand to help hold your laptop or tablet at a more back-friendly height and angle.

Culprit No. 4: Extra pounds
Carrying even just a few extra inches around your midsection—whether it’s due to belly fat or pregnancy—makes your pelvis tilt forward and out of alignment, as your body works to keep itself balanced. This can cause excessive strain on your lower back, Dr. Akuthota says. He recommends doing this easy stretch several times daily: Tighten your abs (like you’re bracing for a punch in the stomach) to activate core muscles and take a load off the lumbar discs; hold 10 seconds, then release. (Pregnant? Check with your doctor before doing any exercise.) How to get flat abs fast

And if weight gain is your problem, consider making whole grains an essential part of your slim-down plan: A new study from Tufts University found that those who ate three or more servings of whole grains a day had 10% less abdominal fat compared with those who ate essentially no whole grains.

Culprit No. 5: The wrong bra
Large-breasted women obviously carry significantly more weight in front than those who have smaller breasts. This can lead to hunching and sore neck and back muscles, Sinett says. A bra that offers proper support can actually minimize that forward hunch and relieve pain, while one that doesn’t may exacerbate the problem, as you hunch or strain even more to compensate for uncomfortable straps or a riding-up band. Yoga moves to relieve pain

Research shows that many women wear the wrong size bra, but the right fit can mean the difference between sagging and supported; get fitted by a bra professional. Prather says you may want to try a T-back (a.k.a. racer-back) style. "It gives the body a cue to pull the shoulders back," she says.

Culprit No. 6: Your crazy schedule
Just like the rest of you, your back muscles can tense up when you’re frazzled. Muscles are designed to contract and relax, Sinett explains, but when you’re stressed, they may contract so much that they can eventually start to spasm. Stress also boosts production of the hormone cortisol, which increases inflammation and can lead to achiness, he says. Head-to-toe solutions for stress

On top of that, "Chronic stress can affect the way a person perceives pain," says Alan Hilibrand, MD, spokesman for the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and professor of orthopaedic and neurological surgery at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. "So those who are stressed will often have a harder time managing back pain than those who aren’t." Lower-impact aerobic exercise (think walking or working out on an elliptical trainer) may help relieve back pain and ease stress—so you can beat the pain for good. .

Chiropractor, Fairfax 22031

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

VHI Evidence Based Newsletter

VHI Evidence Based Newsletter

Can hamstring injuries be prevented with a targeted exercise program?
A: To answer this question, we performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed database (November 2010) for randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews that addressed this specific research question. 1

Eight studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review, evaluating sport-specific exercise in soccer (1) and Australian Rules football (7); isokinetic hamstring strengthening in soccer players (3); and eccentric hamstring exercise in soccer (2,4,8), rugby (5) and Australian Rules football (6).

Kraemer et al conducted a prospective cohort study of soccer-specific balancing exercises among 24 elite level female soccer players, and found a significant decrease in hamstring injuries across two seasons (1). Verrall et al followed a team of 70 Australian Rules football players during two seasons and incorporated a sport-specific intervention during two subsequent seasons, finding a significant reduction in the incidence of match-play hamstring injuries (7). Among professional soccer players, Croiser et al found that players successfully correcting hamstring strength imbalances had a significantly reduced risk of injury compared to players that were untreated (3).

Five studies examined the effect of eccentric hamstring exercise (2-5,7). Engebretsen (4) and Gabbe (6) et al studied Nordic hamstring exercise in elite level athletes and showed no significant benefit related to poor compliance. Brooks et al compared three exercise protocols among 546 rugby players, and found that strengthening, stretching, and Nordic hamstrings resulted in a significantly lower rate of injury compared to strengthening only (5). Similarly, Arnason found the addition of Nordic hamstring exercise to reduce the incidence of hamstring injuries in elite level soccer players (2) Askling found a significant reduction in hamstring injuries among 15 elite level players completing concentric and eccentric overload exercises to the hamstring muscles during the preseason compared to 15 control players (8).

Based on this review, it can be concluded that hamstring strengthening exercises, specifically eccentric, can reduce the incidence of hamstring strain injury provided compliance is maintained. Sample exercises from VHI PC-Kits have been provided based on examples from these studies.

Dr. Brooks
Chiropractor Fairfax, VA 22031

Cycling Aerodynamics and Rolling Resistances

Measuring Changes in Aerodynamic/Rolling Resistances by Cycle-Mounted Power Meters


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Purpose: To develop a protocol for isolating changes in aerodynamic and rolling resistances from field-based measures of power and velocity during level bicycling.

Methods: We assessed the effect of body position (hands on brake hoods vs drops) and tire pressure changes (414 vs 828 kPa) on aerodynamic and rolling resistances by measuring the power (Pext)-versus-speed (V) relationship using commercially available bicycle-mounted power meters. Measurements were obtained using standard road bicycles in calm wind (<1.0 m·s−1) conditions at constant velocities (acceleration <0.5 m·s−2) on a flat 200-m section of a smooth asphalt road. For each experimental condition, experienced road cyclists rode in 50-W increments from 100 to 300 W for women (n = 2) or 100 to 400 W for men (n = 6). Aerodynamic resistance per velocity squared (k) was calculated as the slope of a linear plot of tractive resistance (RT = power/velocity) versus velocity squared. Rolling resistance (Rr) was calculated as the intercept of this relationship.

Results: Aerodynamic resistance per velocity squared (k) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) while riding on the brake hoods compared with the drops (mean ± SD: 0.175 ± 0.025 vs 0.155 ± 0.03 N·V−2). Rolling resistance was significantly greater at 60 psi compared with 120 psi (5.575 ± 0.695 vs 4.215 ± 0.815 N).

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that commercially available power meters are sensitive enough to independently detect the changes in aerodynamic and rolling resistances associated with modest changes in body position and substantial changes in tire pressure.

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Carbohydrate & Protein Mix improves sports Performance

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research:
April 2011 - Volume 25 - Issue 4 - pp 879-888
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318207e98c
Original Research

A Low Carbohydrate–Protein Supplement Improves Endurance Performance in Female Athletes

McCleave, Erin L; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Ding, Zhenping; Doerner, Phillip G III; Wang, Bei; Kammer, Lynne M; Ivy, John L

Free Access
Article Outline
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Author Information

Exercise Physiology and Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas

Address correspondence to Dr. John L. Ivy,

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McCleave, EL, Ferguson-Stegall, L, Ding, Z, Doerner, PG III, Wang, B, Kammer, LM, and Ivy, JL. A low carbohydrate-protein supplement improves endurance performance in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 25(4): 879-888, 2011-The purpose of this study was to investigate if a low mixed carbohydrate (CHO) plus moderate protein (PRO) supplement, provided during endurance exercise, would improve time to exhaustion (TTE) in comparison to a traditional 6% CHO supplement. Fourteen (n = 14) trained female cyclists and triathletes cycled on 2 separate occasions for 3 hours at intensities varying between 45 and 70% V̇O2max, followed by a ride to exhaustion at an intensity approximating the individual's ventilatory threshold average 75.06% V̇O2max. Supplements (275 mL) were provided every 20 minutes during exercise and were composed of a CHO mixture (1% each of dextrose, fructose, and maltodextrin) + 1.2% PRO (CHO + PRO) or 6% dextrose only (CHO). The TTE was significantly greater with CHO + PRO in comparison to with CHO (49.94 ± 7.01 vs. 42.36 ± 6.21 minutes, respectively, p < 0.05). Blood glucose was significantly lower during the CHO + PRO trial (4.07 ± 0.12 mmol·L−1) compared to during the CHO trial (4.47 ± 0.12 mmol·L−1), with treatment × time interactions occurring from 118 minutes of exercise until exhaustion (p < 0.05). Results from the present study suggest that the addition of a moderate amount of PRO to a low mixed CHO supplement improves endurance performance in women above that of a traditional 6% CHO supplement. Improvement in performance occurred despite CHO + PRO containing a lower CHO and caloric content. It is likely that the greater performance seen with CHO + PRO was a result of the CHO-PRO combination and the use of a mixture of CHO sources.

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Previous research has demonstrated that consuming a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement during prolonged endurance exercise improves performance compared to water or placebo (4,5,10,18,21,37,38). The addition of protein (PRO) to a CHO supplement, however, has demonstrated enhanced performance beyond that of CHO alone (19,29,30), but these findings are not universal (23,33).

Investigations from our laboratory recently found PRO added to either a low CHO (3% CHO + 0.75% PRO) or moderate CHO supplement (4.5% CHO + 1.2% PRO) maintained endurance performance efficacy relative to a traditional 6% CHO supplement (25). In an effort to improve the effectiveness of our CHO plus PRO supplement, we altered the CHO source from a single source of dextrose to a mixture of glucose, fructose, and maltodextrin. Multiple sources of CHO appear to increase CHO oxidation rates above that achieved by a single CHO source. The maximal rate of exogenous CHO use during prolonged exercise while providing a single CHO source is about 1.0-1.1 g·min−1(22,35). The oxidation rate, however, can increase to 1.7 g·min−1 when a combination of CHO is ingested during exercise (20). Furthermore, the combination of multiple CHO sources has been shown to further enhance endurance performance above that of glucose alone (6,32).

We previously reported that a 3% mixed CHO plus 1.2% PRO supplement did not improve time to exhaustion (TTE) in comparison to a traditional 6% CHO treatment. However, on closer inspection, it was noted that improvement in performance did occur in subjects exercising at or below their ventilatory threshold (VT) (12). Based on these findings, we sought to determine if this improved performance could be further demonstrated when utilizing a larger subject sample exercising at an intensity approximating their VT.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if the addition of a moderate PRO (1.2%) concentration to a low CHO (3%) mixture (glucose, maltodextrin, and fructose) (CHO + PRO) would improve TTE in comparison to a traditional 6% CHO supplement, in female athletes exercising at or slightly below their VT. It was hypothesized that performance would be enhanced when consuming CHO + PRO in comparison to a traditional 6% CHO supplement, despite a 50% lower CHO concentration and 33% lower caloric intake with the CHO + PRO treatment.

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Experimental Approach to the Problem

This study followed a randomized, double-blinded, repeated-measures design. After initially completing a maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) test and familiarization trial, subjects performed 2 experimental trials separated by 1 week. The experimental protocol was composed of varying intervals between 45 and 70% V̇O2max, followed by a ride to exhaustion at an intensity approximating the individual's VT. Supplements (275 mL) were consumed immediately before commencing the trial, and every 20 minutes thereafter.

The CHO + PRO contained a mixture of dextrose (glucose), maltodextrin and fructose, and a whey PRO isolate. The CHO treatment was composed of dextrose only. CHO + PRO contained 50% the CHO content in comparison to CHO and 33% lower caloric content. Both treatments contained equal amounts of electrolytes (Table 1). Supplements were supplied by the Human Performance Laboratory (Austin, TX, USA) and were prepared by a laboratory technician not directly involved in the study. All supplements were similar in taste, color, and texture.

Table 1
Table 1
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Fourteen female cyclists and triathletes were recruited via e-mail announcement from local triathlon and cycling teams in Austin, TX, USA. A detailed explanation of the experimental procedures and the potential risks of the study were given both verbally and in writing to all subjects before initial testing. Subjects were given the opportunity to ask questions before signing the informed consent, according to the protocol described in the University of Texas at Austin's ‘Institutional Review Board Procedures Manual for Faculty, Staff and Student Researchers with Human Participants.’ The University of Texas at Austin Institutional Review Board approved the study before it commenced. Subject characteristics are found in Table 2.

Table 2
Table 2
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Preliminary Testing

Subjects initially reported to the laboratory for determination of V̇O2max and VT. All trials were conducted on the same cycle ergometer (Veletron Dynafit Pro, Racermate, Seattle, WA, USA). Before testing, body weight was recorded and subjects were outfitted with a Polar heart rRate (HR) monitor (Polar Beat, Polar Electro, Oy, Finland).

Maximal oxygen consumption was determined via a ramped protocol, consisting of a 4-minute warm-up stage (range 75-130 W), followed by 4 stages of 2-minute duration. Each 2-minute stage increased in intensity by 35-W increments. Thereafter, workloads increased by 10 W each minute until the subject could no longer continue. Subjects breathed through a Hans Rudolf valve, with expired gases directed to a mixing chamber for analysis of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Inspired air volumes were measured using a dry gas meter (ParvoMedics TrueOne2400, ParvoMedics, Sandy, UT, USA). A laboratory computer collected gas meter outputs, and used values for calculation of oxygen uptake (V̇O2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) every 15 seconds. The criteria for establishing V̇O2max were a plateau in V̇O2 with increasing exercise intensity in addition to an RER > 1.10. The 2 highest 30-second values were averaged to determine V̇O2max (ml O2·kg−1·min−1). The VT was determined from a computer generated plot of values obtained during the V̇O2max test (ParvoMedics TrueOne2400 software). ventilatory threshold was defined as the point of a nonlinear increase in minute ventilation (V̇E) in comparison to increases in V̇O2. This was confirmed by an increase in the V̇E/V̇CO2 to V̇E/V̇O2 ratio.

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Testing Protocol

All trials were conducted in the Exercise Physiology Metabolism Laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin. Within the 7 days after preliminary testing, subjects reported to the laboratory for a familiarization trial. This trial simulated the experimental protocol, exclusive of blood draws and treatment beverages. Water (275 mL) was substituted for the experimental beverages.

The cycling protocol consisted of varying intervals between 45 and 70% V̇O2max, followed by a ride to exhaustion at an exercise intensity approximating the individual's VT. The first 30 minutes of cycling was conducted at 45% V̇O2max, followed by 6 intervals of 8-minute duration. Interval duration was then reduced to 3 minutes. At 3 hours into the cycling protocol, subjects began the performance ride at an intensity relative to their VT, and this intensity was held until exhaustion. (Refer to Figure 1 for the cycling protocol.) Exhaustion was determined as the point at which subjects could no longer maintain a pedaling cadence of 60 rpm, despite constant verbal encouragement.

Figure 1
Figure 1
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On the morning of the experimental trials, subjects arrived at the laboratory between 7 and 8 am, after a 12-hour fast during which they were permitted to consume water only. Diet and activity logs were collected and verified, and body weight was obtained. Subjects were fitted with a Polar HR monitor and a Teflon catheter, fitted with a 3-way stopcock and a catheter extension, was inserted into an antecubital vein. Subjects were instructed to sit quietly for 2 minutes, after which a baseline HR was recorded and a 5-mL baseline blood draw was taken. After baseline blood sampling, participants consumed the first supplement (275 mL) before mounting the ergometer. Supplements were provided every 20 minutes during the exercise protocol. Upon nearing exhaustion, however, subjects were asked to consume only as much as they felt comfortable.

All timing devices were removed from the subject's sight, blinding participants to the length of ride completed. Personal music devices were permitted; however, devices were required to be on a random song shuffle setting to eliminate any indication of time.

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Cardiorespiratory Measures, Ratings of Perceived Exertion

Respiratory gas samples and ventilation were collected 5 different times throughout the protocol. Collections occurred at 10 minutes (low intensity), 46 minutes (high), 130 minutes and 184 minutes (start of exhaustion ride). Collection periods were 5 minutes in length, excluding the collection at time point 130-136 minutes, which consisted of 2, 3-minute recordings at low and high intensities, respectively. To ensure a steady-state V̇O2 and RER, only the last 2 minutes of each collection was recorded. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates (g·min−1) were calculated from V̇CO2, V̇O2, and RER according to Frayn (13). It was assumed that PRO oxidation during exercise was negligible. The HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded 12 times throughout the exercise protocol. The RPE was recorded using the Borg Scale (2).

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Blood Sampling

Blood samples (5 mL) were collected pre-exercise (PRE), 118 minutes (T −118) and 177 minutes (T − 177) into the exercise protocol, and at the point of exhaustion (END). The sample (0.3 mL) was transferred into a separate tube containing 1 mL 10% perchloric acid (PCA). The remaining sample was divided into 2 tubes and mixed with 0.3 mL of EDTA (24 mg·mL−1, pH 7.4) to prevent coagulation. Tubes were centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3,000 rpm in a HS-4 rotor in a Sorvall RC6 centrifuge (Kendro Laboratory Products, Newtown, CT, USA). Plasma and PCA extracts were transferred, and all tubes were stored at −80°C until analysis.

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Prior Diet and Exercise

Subjects were required to record activity levels for 3 days and diet for the 2 days before each trial. Diet and exercise were recorded in supplied logs, and subjects were required to replicate diet and exercise before each trial. Subjects were asked to keep diet and activity levels as close to their regular routine as possible and asked to refrain from strenuous exercise in the 24 hours before the trial. Logs were reviewed before each trial to ensure compliance. All subjects abided by the requirements.

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Biochemical Analyses of Plasma Metabolites

At each blood collection, 1 drop of blood was used to measure blood glucose concentration (One Touch Basic glucose analyzer, LifeScan Inc., Milipitas, CA, USA). This sample was used to ensure subjects were fasted upon arrival and additionally, as an indicator of blood glucose levels as the trial progressed. Before each trial, the analyzer was calibrated using standards provided by LifeScan Inc.

For data analysis, plasma samples were measured for glucose in duplicate using a modified Trinder procedure at 37°C (31). Samples were read at 500 nm using a Beckman DU640 Spectrophotometer (Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA) and had a coefficient of variation (CV) of 3.7%.

Blood lactate concentrations were measured from the PCA extracts using enzymatic analysis according to Hohorst (17). The assay was run in duplicate and had a CV of 1.2%. Samples were read at 340 nm using a Beckman DU640 Spectrophotometer (Coulter).

Plasma insulin was analyzed via radioimmunoassay (RIA) based on the principles of Goetz and Greenberg (15) (MP Biomedicals 125I RIA, Solon, OH, USA) and had a CV of 6.0%. Duplicate tubes were prepared and counted in a Wallac 1470 Wizard Gamma Counter (PerkinElmer Life and Analytical Sciences, Boston, MA, USA), which had been calibrated for counting 125I.

Myoglobin was measured in duplicate by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (myoglobin enzyme immunoassay test Kit, BioCheck, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA), with a CV of 5.4%. Wells were read at 450 nm with a microtiter well reader (Bio-Tek ELx800, Biotek Instruments Inc, Winooski, VT, USA).

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Statistical Analyses

Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows, version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The TTE was analyzed using a paired t-test. Average HR and substrate (CHO and fat) use across the variable intensity protocol was compared between trials using a paired t-test. All other variables were measured using a 2-way (treatment × time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Where significance was found, post hoc comparisons were conducted using a least significant difference adjustment. Significance was determined at p ≤ 0.05. Data were expressed as mean ± SE.

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Endurance Performance

Time to exhaustion was significantly greater with CHO + PRO, with a 15.2% increase in performance in comparison to CHO (CHO + PRO: 49.94 ± 7.01 vs. CHO: 42.36 ± 6.21 minutes, p < 0.05) (Figure 2). Subjects performed the exhaustion ride at an average of 75.06% V̇O2max, ∼1.5% lower than the calculated average group VT (76.57 ± 1.24%V̇O2max). Intensities for individual subjects ranged from 7.25% below VT to 5.1% above VT.

Figure 2
Figure 2
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Blood and Plasma Analyses

There were no significant differences in the pre-exercise plasma glucose levels. Plasma glucose levels were increased significantly from PRE to END only in the CHO treatment. Additionally, mean blood glucose for CHO (4.47 ± 0.12 mmol·L−1) was significantly greater than for CHO + PRO (4.07 ± 0.12 mmol·L−1) with treatment by time differences occurring at minutes 118 and 177, and at the point of exhaustion (p < 0.05) (Figure 3).

Figure 3
Figure 3
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Plasma insulin levels decreased as exercise progressed during both exercise trials, and there were no significant differences between treatments (Figure 4). Average plasma insulin was 73.56 ± 7.37 pmol·L−1 during the CHO trial and 70.00 ± 7.78 pmol·L−1 during the CHO + PRO trial.

Figure 4
Figure 4
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Average blood lactate concentration was 1.21 ± 0.139 mmol·L−1 for the CHO treatment and 1.22 ± 0.147 mmol·L−1 for the CHO + PRO treatment. No significant differences were found between treatments or treatment by time (Figure 5). In both treatments, blood lactate concentrations significantly increased from 177 minutes to exhaustion (p < 0.05).

Figure 5
Figure 5
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The average plasma myoglobin concentration was 26.28 ± 7.28 ng·mL−1 during the CHO trial and 19.64 ± 1.79 ng·mL−1 during the CHO + PRO trial. However, statistical analysis revealed no significant overall difference in treatment or treatment by time interaction for myoglobin (Figure 6).

Figure 6
Figure 6
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Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Substrate Use

The average RER across the first 3 hours of the CHO treatment was 0.924 ± 0.011 and 0.939 ± 0.012 for CHO + PRO (Table 3). V̇O2 over the same period was slightly, but significantly higher during the CHO + PRO trial (1.779 L·min−1) as compared to CHO (1.755 ± 0.09 L·min−1,p < 0.05). Carbohydrate and fat use were calculated from V̇O2, V̇CO2, and RER data. Collections occurred only during the 3-hour variable intensity ride; thus, results are not indicative of substrate use rates during the performance ride to exhaustion. Average CHO oxidation was 1.76 ± 0.12 g·min−1 for the CHO trial and 1.75 ± 0.12 g·min−1 for the CHO + PRO trial. Average fat oxidation for the CHO and CHO + PRO trials were 0.24 ± 0.04 and 0.22 ± 0.04 g·min−1, respectively. There were no significant treatment differences in either CHO or fat oxidation rates (g·min−1) between CHO + PRO and CHO treatments (Table 3).

Table 3
Table 3
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Heart Rate and Ratings of Perceived Exertion

During exercise, average HR was significantly lower during the CHO + PRO (130.17 ± 3.13 b·min−1) trial in comparison to CHO (132.80 ± 2.92 b·min−1, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between treatments for RPE (Table 4).

Table 4
Table 4
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The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a moderate PRO low mixed CHO sports drink could increase endurance performance in comparison with a traditional 6% CHO sports drink in trained female athletes. The primary finding was that CHO + PRO enhanced TTE above that of CHO when exercising at an intensity at or slightly below VT (CHO + PRO, 49.94 ± 7.01 minutes vs. CHO, 42.36 ± 6.21 minutes, p < 0.05). This represents a 15.2% improvement in performance with CHO + PRO. Improvement in TTE occurred despite CHO + PRO containing a 50% lower CHO content and approximately 30% fewer calories. This may be an important consideration for individuals concerned about body weight and caloric intake.

This study is in agreement with previous findings that the addition of PRO to a CHO supplement enhances endurance performance in comparison with a traditional 6% CHO supplement (19,29,30). Our laboratory recently found that a low CHO plus PRO sports drink maintained efficacy in comparison to a traditional 6% CHO sports drink (26). In an effort to improve our CHO + PRO sport drink, we altered the CHO source to contain a mixture of glucose, fructose, and maltodextrin, rather than a single CHO source (glucose). We recently compared the effects of our 3% mixed CHO plus 1.2% PRO sports drink with a traditional 6% CHO sports drink during variable intensity cycling to exhaustion (12). Improvements in performance, however, were observed only in those individuals performing at or below their VT during the exhaustion portion of the cycling protocol. Recently, it was suggested that the performance effects of CHO + PRO supplementation may be related to the intensity of exercise (3). In this study, we sought to further determine whether the improved performance with CHO + PRO was related to exercise intensity.

Individuals completed the performance ride at an average of 75.06% V̇O2max, approximately 1.5% lower than the average VT (76.57 ± 1.24% V̇O2max). Individualizing the performance ride to the subject's VT is novel in comparison to prior studies investigating the performance effect of CHO + PRO supplementation. Time-to-exhaustion rides have used intensities ranging from 70 to 85% V̇O2max (19,29). Although workloads were adjusted relative to an individual's V̇O2max, these studies did not account for individual differences in VT or corresponding lactate threshold (LT). Performance during endurance sporting events, such as marathons, is evaluated at self-selected intensities that approximate LT (11). Therefore, adjusting performance trials relative to LT or VT may potentially decrease some of the variability in results across subjects.

In this study, performance was defined as the point at which individuals could no longer maintain their cycling cadence above 60 rpm during an exhaustive exercise bout. Previous criticisms of exhaustive exercise bouts are that they are not as representative of sporting events in comparison to a set distance time trial (7,33). However, supplementation benefits are not limited to endurance races such as marathons, distance road cycling, and long-distance triathlons. High levels of endurance are required in numerous situations inside and outside the sporting world. Sports such as tennis, volleyball, and baseball have the capacity to last many hours, with success reliant on lasting endurance during the later stages. Professionals such as firefighters and military personnel are routinely required to maintain high levels of physical and mental performance for prolonged periods, and prolonging TTE can be critical for the success of their mission or even survival.

The improvement in performance with CHO + PRO over CHO is potentially explained by a number of mechanisms. Exogenous CHO alone has previously demonstrated increased glucose uptake above that of placebo (1,24) and suggested to be associated with sparing of endogenous CHO (38). Insulin and muscle contraction are considered the major stimulators of glucose transport (16) and both CHO and PRO have been shown to have a stimulatory effect on insulin levels. Greater insulin response has been found with the combined ingestion of CHO with either PRO (39) or amino acids (34). However, plasma glucose uptake has been shown to be stimulated independently of insulin in the presence of the amino acids, leucine, and isoleucine in animal models (8,9,27). Additionally, CHO + PRO supplementation in humans has demonstrated further stimulation of leg glucose uptake above a CHO only treatment (25). Levenhagen et al. (25), found subjects had a 3.5-fold increase in leg glucose uptake when consuming a CHO plus PRO treatment immediately postexercise, in comparison to CHO only. Treatments were iso-CHO, thus the 3.5-fold increase in glucose uptake with CHO + PRO was likely attributed to the PRO content of the treatment.

In this study, plasma glucose levels were significantly lower during exercise as compared to CHO. However, plasma insulin levels were similar between trials; therefore, the lower plasma glucose levels cannot be attributed to an increase in insulin availability. The combination of CHO and PRO could have increased glucose clearance from the blood at a greater rate than CHO alone, resulting in lower blood glucose levels and increased exogenous CHO availability to the working muscle. However, it is also possible that the lower plasma glucose values of the CHO + PRO treatment were associated with its lower CHO concentration. The CHO + PRO treatment delivered CHO at a rate of 24.75 g CHO·h−1 (0.413 g CHO·min−1), in comparison to 49.5 g CHO·h−1 (0.83 g CHO·min−1) in the CHO treatment.

The CHO + PRO supplement in this study used a mixture of CHO sources. CHO + PRO was composed of equal amounts of dextrose, maltodextrin and fructose, as opposed to the single source of dextrose in the 6% CHO treatment. Oxidation rates up to 1.7 g·min−1 can occur when ingesting a combination of CHO at a high rate of 2.4 g·min−1(20), in comparison a maximum rate of 1.0-1.1 g·min−1 when ingesting a single CHO source (22,35). The increased exogenous oxidation with the multiple CHO sources appears to be related to the use of different intestinal transporters. Glucose and its derivatives are absorbed into the small intestine via the sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter, whereas fructose absorption uses GLUT 5.

In comparison to a single CHO, mixed CHO supplements have previously demonstrated improved time trial performance (6,32). Currell and Jeukendrup (6) found cyclists, who initially cycled for 120 minutes at 55% V̇O2max and then competed in a time trial, had an 8% time trial improvement while ingesting a glucose plus fructose mixture, in comparison to glucose only. Similar results were seen in a recent study comparing iso-CHO glucose and glucose plus fructose during a 100-km cycling time trial (32). As in the study by Currell and Jeukendrup (6), the glucose + fructose mixture improved performance by 8% in comparison to glucose only. Previous investigations in our laboratory have additionally found improved efficacy when using a mixture of CHOs, in combination with a moderate PRO concentration (12). Therefore, it appears this is a likely mechanism contributing to the improved TTE we observed.

Heart rate during the CHO + PRO trial (130.17 ± 3.13 b·min−1) was slightly, but significantly lower, during the 3-hour variable intensity ride, as compared to CHO (132.80 ± 2.92 b·min−1, p < 0.05). However, this cannot be attributed to subjects working at a lower intensity during the CHO + PRO trial, as evidenced by a significantly higher treatment effect for V̇O2 during the same exercise period (CHO: 1.755 ± 0.09 vs. CHO+PRO: 1.779 L·min−1, p < 0.05). Potentially, this difference could be explained by a greater efficiency of the heart during the CHO + PRO trial; however, we are unable to conclude the exact mechanism behind this result. The higher V̇O2 during exercise does give evidence that the improved TTE with CHO + PRO was not related to subjects riding at a lower intensity during the stages preceding the time-to-exhaustion exercise bout.

During this study, we measured plasma myoglobin levels to indirectly assess muscle damage. Previous studies have found CHO + PRO supplementation can decrease muscle damage response to exercise (29,30). This mechanism to enhance performance was first proposed by Saunders et al. (29), when a CHO + PRO supplementation enhanced TTE by 29% compared with a traditional 6% supplement. In addition, levels of the muscle damage marker creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were found to be 83% lower 20-24 hours postexercise after CHO + PRO supplementation. In a subsequent exhaustive exercise bout 12-15 hours later, performance was 40% greater in comparison to CHO only supplementation. In a later study, Saunders et al. (30) found that subjects cycled 13% longer when consuming a CHO + PRO gel compared to CHO alone during a ride to exhaustion at 75% V̇O2peak. Plasma CPK levels were significantly lower 12-15 hours postexercise in the CHO + PRO treatment in comparison to CHO. Despite these findings, reduced muscle damage with CHO + PRO supplementation has not always corresponded with improved performance. In contrast to previous findings by Saunders et al. (29,30), we found no difference in markers of muscle damage between treatments. However, measures were only taken during and immediately postexercise, with the last collection taken at the point of exhaustion. Therefore, it is possible that the times we selected to assess muscle damage via measurement of plasma myoglobin were inadequate.

Another mechanism by which CHO + PRO may have enhanced performance is related to aerobic energy production. It has been proposed that consuming a CHO + PRO supplement during exercise maintains Krebs cycle intermediates and aerobic energy production and may enhance endurance performance (19,36). Krebs cycle intermediates increase at the onset of exercise and progressively decline as exercise continues (14,28). A decrease in CHO availability has been proposed to further decrease Krebs cycle intermediates, possibly limiting the mitochondria's ability to maintain aerobic energy capacity (28). Maintaining Krebs cycle intermediates is critical in the maintenance of aerobic energy production (28,36). The addition of PRO to CHO may further enhance CHO ability to maintain Krebs cycle intermediates during exercise (36). A study recently conducted by Cermak et al. (3) found no difference in the Krebs cycle intermediates citrate and malate while ingesting a 6% CHO plus 2% PRO or an isocarbohydrate CHO treatment. However, there was no measure of α-ketoglutarate, which is likely to be the rate limiting Krebs cycle intermediate during prolonged exercise bouts. Although not directly assessed in this study, it is possible improved endurance performance with CHO + PRO could be attributed to its ability to maintain aerobic energy capacity.

In summary, the addition of a moderate PRO concentration to a low concentration CHO mixture improved endurance performance in comparison to a traditional 6% CHO sports drink in trained female athletes. This improvement occurred despite CHO + PRO containing 50% less CHO and approximately 30% fewer calories than the traditional 6% CHO supplement. It is likely the greater performance seen with CHO + PRO was a result of the combination of PRO and the use of a mixture of CHO sources.

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Practical Applications

Consuming a beverage high in CHO concentration during endurance has demonstrated improved endurance performance. However, these beverages are often high in caloric content. In this study, CHO + PRO improved performance despite containing 50% lower CHO content and approximately 30% fewer calories. This may be an important consideration for those individuals concerned about body weight and caloric intake.

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The authors wish to thank the study participants for their time and dedication to this study. Funding for this study was provided by HPL Laboratories LLC, Austin, TX, USA. The results of this study do not constitute endorsement of the product by the authors or the National Strength and Conditioning Association.

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aerobic capacity; exercise; glucose; time to exhaustion; ventilatory threshold